Ang Paglalaba ng Pera
by Isabelita Manalastas -Watanabe
Bakit natin nilalabhan ang isang bagay? Diba dahil ito ay madumi? Ganito rin po ang ginagawa sa maduming pera - "nilalabhan." Sa wikang Ingles, "Money Laundering."
Bakit napaka-istrikto ng mga banko at mga non-bank remittance companies kapag gusto ninyong mag-remit ng pera? Bakit kailangang kuhanan kayo ng proper identification document? Isang dahilan ang pag-avoid ng money laundering. Kaya kapag malaki-laki ang perang gusto ninyong i-remit, kahit may isinumite na kayong tamang identification document, kukulitin pa rin kayo kung saan galing ang inyong pera, ano ang paggagamitan sa inyong perang ire-remit at iba pa.
Money is "laundered" to conceal all types of criminal activity, including people smuggling, drug trafficking, and these account for the majority of "dirty" money in the world. Needless to say, money laundering is driven by criminal activities and the need to conceal the true source of its funds. It becomes necessary when the amount of cash is so large that the criminal cannot absorb it into his or her lifestyle by spending it.
Countering money laundering is considered a most useful tool in the fight against organized crime. Whether intentionally or unintentionally, money transaction companies may sometimes play a supportive role in money laundering. Kaya sobra talaga ka-istrikto sila kapag malaki at malimit ang pag-re-remit ng pera.
Iba't ibang Paraan ng Pag-launder ng Pera
1. Asset Purchase with Bulk Cash
This involves individual purchases of big items such as cars, boats and real estate. Karamihan, ginagamit ng mga money launderers itong mga biniling mga assets na ito, pero ayaw nilang i-rehistro ang mga ito sa kanilang pangalan. Ipinapangalan ang mga ito sa kamag-anak, or kaya'y sa kaibigan. Iyong iba naman, ibinebenta ulit ang mga binili para magmukhang legitimate ang source ng pera.
2. Currency Smuggling
This involves funds moved across borders to disguise their source and ownership and to avoid being subject to the record-keeping requirements. Funds are smuggled in various ways (such as concealing the funds in personal items or shipping containers either by mail, courier, and/or by vehicle, ship, or aircraft) often to countries with strict bank secrecy laws. Kasi kapag may strict banking secrecy laws ang isang bansa at doon successfully naitago sa banko nila ang pera, hindi mabubulgar sino ang talagang may ari ng pera.
Mayroon namang ang destinasyon ng pera ay isang bansang napaka-lax naman ng anti-money laundering laws. Noong nasa Italy pa ako naka-assign, nadinig ko na maraming mga suspected money launderers ang literally crossing the borders of countries by car, at doon sa kotse nila itinatago ang cash, papunta sa ibang bansa sa Europa na hindi masyadong istrikto ang anti-money laundering laws, para i-remit ang pera.
3. Exchange Transactions
Using proceeds of crime to buy foreign currency that can then be transferred to offshore bank accounts anywhere in the world.
4. Gambling in Casinos
Isang paraan ang pagpunta sa mga casino ng may dalang malaking cash, tapos bibili ng gambling chips. Tapos kunwari magsusugal ng kaunti, tapos pupunta na sa cashier ng casino, para ipagpalit ulit sa cash ang mga hawak na chips.
5. Friends and Family
Gagamitin ang pangalan ng mga kaibigan o kamag-anak, para sila kunwari ang gagawa ng financial transaction, tulad ng money remittance. Karamihan ng mga ginagamit na kamag-anak o mga kaibigan ay may magandang katayuan sa komunidad, para hindi sila mag-attract ng atensiyon or suspetsa. The use of nominees facilitates the concealment of the source and ownership of the funds involved.
Ito po ay ang paraan ng pagpapalit ng maliliit na bills, para palitan ng big bills. Pupunta sa iba't ibang banko, casino o kaya'y mga money exchange companies para magpalit ng big bills. Siyempre, kapag maliliit ang bills, masyado iyang makapal o bulky at mas mahirap itago.
7. Reverse Flip
Ang money launderer ay hahanap ng kasabwat na property seller na ibebenta ang property ng higit na mababa sa tunay na halaga, tapos ibibigay ang difference sa under-the-table. Tapos, maghihintay ng kaunting panahon itong bumili na money launderer, bago ibebenta ulit ang property sa tunay na halaga. Lalabas na kunwari nagka-kwarta siya dahil sa tinubo sa kanyang pagbebenta.
Ito po ang pag-be-break ng isang malaking transaksiyon into several small transactions para ma-evade ang maximum na halaga na dapat i-remit. Pupunta ang money launderer sa ilang mga remittance companies at mag-re-remit sa bawa't isa para hindi sila mahuling ang laki pala ng total na perang ipinadala.
When many inconspicuous individuals deposit cash, purchase money transfers, or buy bank drafts at various financial institutions. The cash is subsequently transferred to a central account or beneficiary. Ang tawag po dito sa mga taong ito ay "smurfs." Hindi sila nag-a-attract ng atensiyon dahil nga pinapalitaw nilang maliliit lang at below the maximum amount allowed ang kanilang mga transaksiyon.
Dapat po tayong maging alert na hindi tayo unwittingly magamit ng mga money launderers sa kanilang illegal na activities. Ang perang na-launder ay pwede rin pong magamit sa terrorist funding, kaya ganoon na lang ngayon ka-istrikto karamihan ng mga iba't ibang bansa sa pagbabantay ng money laundering.
Sa ating mga kababayan na nag-re-remit ng pera: pagpasensiyahan nyo na po at sana'y inyong intindihin ang pagiging makulit ng mga banko sa bansang Hapon, at saka ng mga iba't ibang remittance companies, kapag kayo ay gustong mag-remit ng pera. Sila po ay sumusunod lang sa napaka-istriktong anti-money laundering laws at saka anti-terrorist funding dito sa bansang Hapon.
By Farah Trofeo-Ishizawa
Where did all the days go? Time has literally flown so fast, don’t you think so? December 2011 will be here soon. Before we know it, we will welcome another year.
It is getting cooler each day, and I hope that all of you are ready for the winter season. This goes especially to all of you who just got here in Japan.
Winter is a beautiful time to dress up. Women put on their boots, wear their coats, scarves, and other winter wear. Just be careful not to slip when it snows. “Wha-foise ! :D
(my French version for – “wa-poise). ”
Winter is also the time when many English teachers are off from school. School or no school, still all of us should continue to work on improving our teaching skills. I see winter as a good time for this.
One of the things we can do during winter is to attend seminars that will help build confidence and teach us more creative stuff for our classrooms.
I am aware of three groups that constantly create workshops for the Filipino English teachers. They are: FETJ (Filipino English Teachers in Japan), CoFFET (Community of Friendly Filipino English Teachers) and the group “Mabuhay Classroom.”
There is actually an organization called – ETJ (English Teachers in Japan), and it does not limit its membership to only Filipinos. I would like to introduce someone from ETJ who is very close to many Filipino English teachers here in Japan. Each “cut” is divided according to my questions and the answers of the person I am about to introduce.
Meet Mr. David Paul, popularly known as “Paul Sensei” to many Filipino teachers. He is the founder of group ETJ, English Teachers in Japan. He is referred to as DP here as follows:
F: Please tell me a short background of ETJ? Why did you form this group?
DP: I started ETJ about ten years ago because I thought English teachers in Japan needed a free grass-roots association that was appropriate for the busy classroom teacher. I also thought it was important to have an association that encouraged the sharing of many different opinions and ideas, and supported the professional development of teachers.
F: What is the present ratio of members in terms of nationality in ETJ? How can you compare it to the previous years?
New members of ETJ are not asked to say their nationality. About 60% of the members are Japanese, a bit over 5% are Filipino, and most of the rest are British, American, Canadian, Australian or New Zealanders. The percentage of Filipino and Japanese teachers is increasing.
F: Do you have a comment about the influx of Filipino English Teachers in Japan?
I think the influx of Filipino English teachers is having a very positive effect. It is certainly making events for teachers more dynamic.
F: What can you say about the Filipino English Teachers?
Many Filipino teachers seem very keen to learn. Recently, the percentage of Filipino teachers at ETJ events has been very high. So many Filipino teachers seem so motivated to develop professionally, and this is very encouraging.
F: Do you think everyone who goes to the seminars and lectures are qualified to be teachers?
To be qualified to be a teacher is a combination of training and experience. Going to workshops is a very important part of this, but it is not the only thing that is important. It is also necessary to learn by trial and error, to be observed by experienced teachers, and to take training courses.
F: What do you think is the future of the Filipino English teachers here in Japan?
I think Filipino teachers have a very positive future in Japan, especially teaching children.
F: What advice can you give Filipino teachers?
I think the best advice I can give is to keep trying to develop your teaching ability. This is true for experienced teachers as well as for new teachers. A good teacher is always learning. Another bit of advice is to learn how to teach in a child-centered way.
Thank you, Mr. David Paul.
Let us all work for the future of the Filipino English teachers in Japan.
Teachers: remember to plan your lessons well, do your best. Teach well, and be happy at all times. Mabuhay tayong lahat ! May you have a Blessed Holiday Season !